Armendariz, A. & Armendariz, E. (2002). An administrative perspective of a two-way bilingual immersion program. Bilingual Research Journal, 26:1, 1-11.

Armstrong, P. & Rogers, J. (1997). Basic skills revisited: The effects of foreign language instruction on reading, math, and language arts. Learning Languages, 2 (3), 20-31.

Bialystok, E. (2007). Acquisition of literacy in bilingual children: A framework for research. Language Learning, 57, 45-77.

Bialystok, E. (2009). Bilingualism: The good, the bad and the indifferent. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 12 (1), 3-11.

Bialystok, E., Majumder, S. & Martin, M. (2003). Developing phonological awareness: Is there a bilingual advantage? Applied Psycholinguistics, 24, 27-44.

Caine, R. N. & Caine, G. (1997). Education on the edge of possibility. Alexandria VA:  Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development.

Christian, D., Genese, F., Lindholm-Leary, K. & Howard, L. (2004). Two-way immersion. Final Progress Report. Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE).

Collier, V. & Thomas, W. (2004). The Astounding Effectiveness of Dual Language Education for All, NABE Journal, Winter.

Hakuta, K. (1990). Language and cognition in bilingual children. In A. Padilla, H. Fairchild & C. Valadez (Eds.) Bilingual education: Issues and Strategies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Howard, E.R. & Christian, D. (2002). Two-way immersion 101: Designing and implementing a two-way immersion education program at the elementary level (Educational Practice Report 9). Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence (CREDE).

Howard, E.R., Sugarman, J. & Christian, D. (2003). Trends in two-way immersion education: A review of the research. Report 63. Baltimore, MD: Center for Research on the Education of Students Placed At Risk.

Howard, E. R., Sugarman, J., Christian, D., Lindholm-Leary, K. J. & Rogers, D. (2007). Guiding Principles for Dual Language Education(2nd ed.). Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Krashen, S.D. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Lindholm-Leary, K. (2000). Biliteracy for a global society: An idea book on dual language education. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education.

Lindholm-Leary, K. (2001). Dual Language Education. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, LTD.

Lindholm-Leary, K. (2005). Review of research and best practices on effective features of dual language education programs. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics. Available:

Met, M. (1991). Learning language through content: Learning content through language. Foreign Language Annals, 24 (4), 281-95.

Montrul, S. & Potowski, K. (2007). Command of gender agreement in school-age Spanish-English bilingual children. International Journal of Bilingualism, 11 (3), 301-328.

Potowski, K. (2007). Language and identity in a dual-immersion school. Clevedon, U.K.: Multilingual Matters.

Perez, B. (2004). Becoming bilingual: A study of two-way bilingual immersion education. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Thomas W.P., & Collier, V. (2002). A national study of school effectiveness for language minority students’ long-term academic achievement. Santa Cruz, CA and Washington, DC: Center for Research on Education, Diversity & Excellence.

Torres-Guzman, M.E. (2002). Dual language programs: Key features and results. Directions in Language and Education, 14 (Spring). Washington, DC: National Clearing House for Bilingual Education.

Additional Resources

The following organizations provide information pertaining to dual language education.

Center for Applied Linguistics

National Association for Bilingual Education

Center for Research on Education, Diversity and Excellence

National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational Programs

American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages